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Non-destructive Analysis (NDA)

Circuit Edit (CKT)

Materials Analysis (MA)

Application Forms

Software

MA-tek FTP

Solar Cell Case Study

Analysis Examples for Solar Cell

 
 

Texturing (surface morphology)

Optical profiler, SEM, TEM

Film type and thickness

SEM / EDS,TEM / EDS

Cell structure

SEM / EDS,TEM / EDS

Junction depth

SEM, SIMS, SRP

Substrate defects (crystalline defects)

TEM,SEM,EMMI

2D Doping profile

SEM,SCM

Edge isolation

EMMI,EL

Failure Analysis (FA)

EMMI,EL,SAT,FIB,TEM,SEM

 

 

 

Plan View of Solar Cell Structure

 

 

Non-Contact 3D Surface Profiler

Applications

  • Flatness, surface roughness, step height, deformation and waviness
  • 2-D and 3-D profile

 

Advantages

  • Accurate, fast and no sample preparation is needed
  • An extremely wide range of surface heights is capable to be profiled. (~180μm)
  • The benefits of optical surface profilometry include
         - Excellent height resolution
         - High measurement speed
         - Ability to perform non-contact measurements of delicate surfaces

 

 

Surface defects characterization

(a)OP  (b)SEM  (c)Metal fingers formation on FPC  (d)Photo mask inspection

 

 

Surface Texturing (Morphology)

Nano View (Optical Profiler):quantitative characterization of surface roughness

 

 

Surface Texturing (Morphology, Roughness)

 

 

Cell Structure

 

 

Front Side Surface Texturing

 

 

Back Side Al BSF


  

SEM – BSF Staining

 

 

SEM – Emitter Junction Staining

 

 

Substrate Pin Hole

 

(a)FIB 圖像;(b)SEM 圖像

 

 

FIB Cutting of Substrate Pin Hole

 

 

 

Substrate Pin Hole (X-TEM)

 

 

 

Substrate Pin Hole

Cross-sectional TEM

 

 

Defect Localization by EMMI

  • Leakage (Junction/Oxide):
    - Leakage at Oxide (Low Temp.)
    - Latch-up etc.
  • Hot Electrons (Bulk)

 

 

 

EL Image of Multi– Si Solar Cell

 

 

Si Solar Cell FA by EMMI Analysis

 

 

Si Solar Cell FA by EMMI & TEM

 

 

SIMS Applications

  • Ultra-shallow junction analysis
  • Very thin layer (tens angstrom) analysis
  • Doping profile/Depth profile
  • Back side Cu Diffusion
  • Contamination verification
  • Excellent detection limit (ppm to ppb)
  • Can detect all elements and isotopes, including H
  • Excellent depth resolution, 1nm is possible
  • Quantification by standard reference
  • Insulator can be measured

 

 


(a) CAMECA ims-6f,High Transmission and High Mass Resolution;

(b) ATOMIKA sims 4500,High Depth Resolution, Ultra-Shallow Junction


 

 

 

SIMS Analysis for Si Solar Cell