| The K-kit users may select a proper option per their observation purposes, either by dried mode (Thin-layer Mode) or by wet mode for the sample preparation. For example, if one would like to just observe the shapes, sizes, or aggregates and agglomerates (NOAAs) of the particles in liquid, making a dried mode of K-kit sample will be our suggestion, due to it usually with very good image quality at dried state. If someone would like to study kinds of chemical reaction in liquid, such as Au reduction process in AuCl4 solution by TEM electron beam energy, it should be considered to adopt the wet mode K-kit, which with liquid preserved inside. |
In addition, if the liquid sample essentially being very easy to react with the electron beam energy of TEM, by mostly bringing about a serious bubbling or disturbance from the liquid to hinder the TEM observation, the customers may consider applying the dried mode of K-kit as the priority solution. As stated above, there’re two modes of sample preparation Wet and Dried (also called as Thin Layer) available for K-kit. Generally, by using K-kits in larger gap heights (like 2um ones), it will be easily to result in the inner conditions in either fully dried without sealing both ends of the channel or with a thin liquid layer preserved on the inner walls as gluing sealed the openings within a few seconds after the liquid loading. Basically, it can be with relatively slight reaction, if less amount of liquid remained in the channel. Being able to reduce the liquid bubbling effect by the dried mode, it’s also a unique feature of K-kit that better than the other products in the market.
The loaded liquid sample is sealed and imaged using TEM in the native liquid environment.
A patented liquid drying protocol preserves the original morphology and physical state of nanomaterials with improved imaging resolution.
| The channel gaps of K-kit make big difference. Basically, we use 2um gap K-kits for dry mode, and 0.2um gap for wet mode. It’s because the liquid loaded by a larger gap height of K-kit can be much easier to be evaporated or pumped out at room temperature than by a smaller one in gap height. And, to ensure that the sample liquid could be well dried in K-kit when making a dried mode, it’s essential to keep both ends of the channel open to the atmosphere, no need to do glue sealed step. |
Mechanism of Thin Layer Mode
Filled with liquid sample
Dried out by vacuum pumping
By the dried process, a thin liquid layer would be formed on walls, which liquid layer trapping the particles to remain in situ.
|The particles would also stay in place, as the thin liquid dried out.|
| A thin layer mode result of gap 0.2um K-kit loaded with polystyrene bead solution. |
|Using the dried mode of K-kit, one can prevent the nanoparticles from externally induced aggregates and keep them to remain in situ as the look suspended in liquid; the result will be almost the same as it observed by the wet mode.|
|Dried on Cu grid||Dried Mode of K-kit|
By the dried mode of K-kit, one can get the images of the nanoparticles that spread uniformly, keeping them to remain in situ after dried; if drying on Cu grid, the particles will be aggregated. (CMP Slurry)
|The Liquid Layer Observations in Thin Layer Mode of K-kit|
1. US 9384942 B2, " Speciment Preparation forTransmission Electron Microscopy,” July, 2016.
2. “Stable Water Layers on Solid Surfaces,”Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 18, 5905-5909, 2016.
3. “Direct-Writing of Cu Nano-Patterns with an Electron Beam,”Microsc. Microanal. 21, 1639–1643, 2015.
4. “Electron Beam Manipulation of Gold Nanoparticles External to the Beam,”RSC Adv., 4, 31652–31656, 2014.